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Thursday, May 23, 2013
There are several important steps that must occur with relative precision to achieve pregnancy.
Step 1: Ovulation and Sperm Production - First, the woman must release an egg near the middle of her menstrual cycle, a process termed ovulation. In addition, the man must produce an adequate number of functional sperm.
Step 2: Transport - Immediately after ovulation, the tube must pick up the egg and transport it to the portion of the tube where fertilization occurs.
Step 3: Intercourse and Fertilization - Within 24 hours of ovulation, the couple must have intercourse and an adequate number of motile sperm must make their way through the cervical mucus and uterus to the distal end of the tube to fertilize the egg.
Step 4: Implantation - During the first 5 to 6 days after fertilization, the embryo must be transported by the tube into the uterus and must implant into the uterine lining.
Step 5: Nutrition - For at least 5 weeks after implantation, the growing pregnancy must be supported by hormones from the ovary (estrogen and progesterone) until the placenta can take over production of these hormones.
If just one of these steps does not occur with precision, another month will pass without achieving pregnancy. In light of the complexity of the process, it is not surprising that few couples achieve pregnancy on the first try or that many couples without any history of reproductive problems experience some difficulty.
Most couples are surprised to discover that it often takes several months of active "trying" to achieve pregnancy. Keep in mind that:
For these reasons, most obstetrician-gynecologists will recommend that couples try for up to a year to achieve pregnancy on their own before seeking medical assistance.
This is assuming that a woman has regular monthly menstrual periods and that there are no known fertility problems. Several good guides are available to improve the chances of becoming pregnant by increasing your understanding of the factors that affect fertility.
Prepared in partnership with Melina Dendrinos, MD, Class of 2008, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 1st year resident in Obstetrics and Gynecology at University of Chicago
This article is a NetWellness exclusive.
Last Reviewed: Jul 11, 2010
William W Hurd, MD
Professor of Reproductive Biology
School of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University