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Non-hodgkin Lymphoma

Stages of Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

The following stages are used for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma:

Stage I

 

 

Stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma; drawing shows cancer in one group of lymph nodes. An inset shows a lymph node with a lymph vessel, an artery, and a vein. Lymphoma cells containing cancer are shown in the lymph node.
Stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer is found in one group of lymph nodes or one area outside the lymph nodes, but no cancer is found in the abdomen or mediastinum (area between the lungs).

In stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomacancer is found:

  • in one group of lymph nodes; or
  • in one area outside the lymph nodes.

No cancer is found in the abdomen or mediastinum (area between the lungs).

Stage II

 

 

Stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma; drawing shows cancer in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, in the liver, and in the appendix. The colon and small intestine are also shown.  An inset shows a lymph node with a lymph vessel, an artery, and a vein. Lymphoma cells containing cancer are shown in the lymph node.
Stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer is found in one area outside the lymph nodes and in nearby lymph nodes (a); or in two or more areas above (b) or below (c) the diaphragm; or cancer started in the stomach, appendix, or intestines (d) and can be removed by surgery.

In stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomacancer is found:

  • in one area outside the lymph nodes and in nearby lymph nodes; or
  • in two or more areas above or below the diaphragm, and may or may not have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or
  • to have started in the stomach or intestines and can be completely removed by surgery. Cancer may or may not have spread to certain nearby lymph nodes.

Stage III

 

 

Stage III childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma; drawing shows cancer in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, in the chest, and throughout the abdomen in the liver, spleen, small intestines, and appendix. The colon is also shown. An inset shows a lymph node with a lymph vessel, an artery, and a vein. Lymphoma cells containing cancer are shown in the lymph node.
Stage III childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer is found in at least one area above and below the diaphragm (a); or cancer started in the chest (b); or cancer started in the abdomen and spread throughout the abdomen (c); or in the area around the spine (not shown).

In stage III childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomacancer is found:

  • in at least one area above the diaphragm and in at least one area below the diaphragm; or
  • to have started in the chest; or
  • to have started in the abdomen and spread throughout the abdomen, and cannot be completely removed by surgery; or
  • in the area around the spine.

Stage IV

 

 

Stage IV childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma; drawing shows the brain, spinal cord, and cerebrospinal fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord. An inset shows cancer in the bone marrow.
Stage IV childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer is found in the bone marrow, brain, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Cancer may also be found in other parts of the body.

In stage IV childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomacancer is found in the bone marrow, brain, or cerebrospinal fluid. Cancer may also be found in other parts of the body.

Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is also described as low-stage or high-stage.

Treatment for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is based on whether the cancer is low-stage or high-stage. Low-stage lymphoma has not spread beyond the area in which it began. High-stage lymphoma has spread beyond the area in which it began. Stage I and stage II are usually considered low-stage. Stage III and stage IV are usually considered high-stage.

Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Recurrent childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma may come back in the lymph system or in other parts of the body.

Adapted from the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ(r)) Cancer Information Summaries (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq). Last Modified: March 16, 2015

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Last Reviewed: May 01, 2015

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