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Thursday, December 12, 2013
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADD/ADHD Symptoms in Girls
What are symptoms for girls with ADHD?
There is some conflicting research on gender differences with ADHD. There has been a perceived referral bias with girls, possibly related to the fact that boys' hyperactivity or misbehavior is more socially acceptable than it is for girls. According to Arcia and Conner (1998) girls with higher ratings of hyperactivity or inattention have been referred earlier than boys. Adult women with ADHD have been found to have greater self esteem issues than do adult males. However, there was no difference noted in boys or girls cognitive or neuropsychological abilties. Referral source has shown to make a slight difference in terms of gender. Gaub and Carlson (1997) found in looking at eighteen different studies that girls who were not referred from clinics, rather from other sources, like parents or teachers, had lower levels of inattention and aggression with peers than did their male peers. Overall, there were no gender differences found in impulsivity or school performance. For more specific information, you might try the WWW link listed below (this is for ADDvance, the magazine on women/girls and ADD/ADHD) or the references listed below quite helpful. References: Arcia, E. & Conners, CK. (1998). Gender differences in ADHD? Journal of Development and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19(2), 77-83. Gaub, M. & Carlson, CL. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: A meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1036-45.
Marcia Hern, RN, EdD
College of Nursing
University of Cincinnati