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Urinary and Genital Disorders (Children) Overview

Pediatric urology is a specialty devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of problems related to the urinary system and genitals in children.

Children cannot always say what is bothering them or answer medical questions, and are not always able to be cooperative during a medical examination. However, pediatric urologists know how to examine and treat children in a way that makes them relaxed and cooperative. Pediatric urologists often use equipment specially designed for children.



Some of the symptoms related to various conditions that pediatric urologist can diagnose and treat include:


Possible Condition:

Nausea or vomiting

Urinary tract infection in Kidney
Acidic body fluids
Blockage in urinary tract

Stomach Pain

Internal Stomach or Intestinal Injuries

Bloated Stomach

Inability to completely urinate
Enlarged kidneys
Malformed kidneys
Kidney cancer
Cancer of nerve tissue
Kidney swelling

Difficulty Urinating

Blocked urethral valves
Narrowing of urethra
Scar tissue around urethral stricture
Swelling of urethra
Bladder pain syndrome


Nerve damage to bladder
Bladder pain syndrome
Misplaced kidneys
Widen urethra
Bulging pockets in the bladder

Bed Wetting

Urinary tract disease

Blood in Urine

Kidney swelling
Kidney failure
Urine flow back into kidneys, also known as reflux
Kidney stones
Blood clot in kidney
Bleeding disorders
Diseased kidney filters or nephrons, also known as Glomerulopathies

Undescended Testes

Undescended Testicles
Misplaced testes
Retracted testes

Scrotal Swelling

Reduced blood supply to testes
Fluid filled sac, also known as a hydrocele


Talk to your pediatrician

If your child shows any of the above symptoms, the typical next step is an initial consultation with you pediatrician who will determine if subspecialty referral is appropriate. The pediatrician should perform the initial evaluation and oftentimes, they can manage the issue. It is important to keep your pediatrician in the loop with specialists, and often the pediatrician can handle many of the medical management for some of the conditions that require referral to a specialist.


How do pediatric urologists treat these disorders?

  • Evaluation and management of disorders
  • Surgical reconstruction of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, and bladder)
  • Surgery for groin conditions in childhood and adolescence


Find a pediatric urologist:

Click here to find a pediatric urologist in your area.



For more information:

Go to the Urinary and Genital Disorders (Children) health topic.