African American Smokers and Heart Disease Risk
More than 45,000 African Americans die from smoking-related diseases each year, which include coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and emphysema. It is estimated that nearly one-third of African American deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) are caused by smoking. CVD is the leading cause of death for all Americans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and among African Americans, and smoking increases the risk for stroke.
In 2007, 19.8% of African Americans smoked, compared with 21.4% of whites (CDC, 2008). Although smoking rates have been declining since 1965, African American males have higher rates of smoking (24.8%) than African American females (15.8%). Despite smoking, on average, fewer cigarettes per day than whites, African Americans tend to smoke brands with higher nicotine levels. In addition, three of every four African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes. Menthol may increase the absorption of harmful cigarette smoke chemicals. So, although African Americans tend to smoke fewer cigarettes, they are more susceptible to developing smoking-related diseases.
If the current patterns continue, an estimated 1.6 million African Americans who are now under the age of 18 will become regular smokers. About 500,000 of those smokers will die of a smoking-related disease. Non-smoking African Americans also have a higher rate of exposure to secondhand smoke than whites, which will contribute additional deaths caused by CVD.
Compared to their white counterparts, African Americans have more heart and blood vessel disease:
- About 40% of African American men and women have some form of heart disease, compared with 30% of white men and 24% of white women. (Office of Minority Health)
- The death rate from heart and blood vessel disease among African Americans is 28% higher among African American men and 36% higher among African American women. (U.S. 2005: National Vital Statistics Report)
- African Americans have almost twice the risk of a first-time stroke.
- The 2005 death rates per 100,000 population for stroke were 70.5 for black males (vs. 44.7 for white males) and 60.7 for black females (vs. 44.0 for white females).
Learn your risk factors and the warning signs of heart disease and stroke at Search Your Heart: Heart Disease, Stroke and African Americans.
You can obtain more information on how to quit smoking by calling the National Cancer Institute at 1-800-422-6237 and asking for “Pathways to Freedom: Winning the Fight Against Tobacco.” You may also access it online at http://www.smokefree.gov/landing.aspx?rid=7.
- Smoking Increases Risk of Heart Disease
- Women Smokers and Heart Disease Risk
- The Health Consequences of Smoking
- American Heart Association
- CDC, 2008. National Vital Statistic Report. Vol. 56, Num 10 Table 17
- Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2007 (CDC)
- Heart Disease and African Americans (Office of Minority Health)
For more information:
Go to the Smoking and Tobacco health topic.